State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory (STCI)

This site contains some info regarding the State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory as well as downloadable versions of the scale, scoring key, and unpublished literature.

a) What is the STCI ?

b) Literature (publications of others, publications of Ruch, student research) on Construction and Validation

c) Versions and scoring key

The State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory (STCI)


The State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory (STCI) is an instrument measuring the three concepts of cheerfulness, seriousness, and bad mood as both states (STCI-S) and traits (STCI-T).

The German STHI. Starting from the German pilot versions of the state and trait parts of the STHI (State-Trait-Heiterkeits-Inventar; Ruch, Köhler & van Thriel, 1996, 1997) with 40 (STHI-S<40>) and 122 (STHI-T<122>) items, respectively, several forms were developed: (a) a component (or long) trait form with 106 items (i.e., the STHI-T<106>); (b) a standard trait form with 60 items (STHI-T<60>), (c) a short trait form with 30 items (STHI-T<30>), (d) a standard state form with 30 items (STHI-S<30>), and (e) a short state form with 15 items (STHI-S<15>). While all three trait forms assess trait-cheerfulness, trait-seriousness, and trait- bad mood, the long form is scoreable for facets (16 subscales) as well. All state forms are scored for three scales: state-cheerfulness, state-seriousness, and state-bad mood.

Variations of these forms were generated for special purposes. While their psychometric properties were studied, they did not undergo a separate construction procedure. The peer- evaluation facet form (STHI-T<106>Fremd) was generated by reformulating all 106 items in a he/she-version and by adapting the instructions accordingly. The instructions of the state form (STHI-S<30>) were changed to study the subjects' affective and mental states over longer- lasting periods (how did you feel last week, last month, last year, in general?). Generation of the international version. An international version of the STCI (Ruch, Köhler, Deckers & Carrell, 1994) was developed by translating the item pool of the state and trait parts into English. The translation included several steps (documented in Ruch et al., 1996) and utilized bilinguals and native speakers of English. As a result, the international version comprises a facet trait form (STCI-T<106i>) and a state forrm (STCI-S<45i>) which will serve as the pilot versions for adaptation in different cultures. While the trait form shares the item pool with the German STHI-T<106>, the state form comprises all 40 items of the German STHI-S<40> supplemented by five newly written items. A peer-evaluation facet trait form (STCI-T<106i> peer) was generated as well but is not studied so far.

The English STHI. The trait and state versions were administered to American and British samples. On the basis of these further data, standard and short versions for use with English speaking participants were constructed. Like the German counterparts, the English standard trait version is a 60-item scale (i.e., the STCI-T<60>) and the standard state version is a 30-item scale (i.e., the STCI-S<30>). However, the item pools of the German and English versions overlap but are not identical. Although short versions are developed as well (i.e., STCI-T<30>; STCI-S<18>), due to the lack of replication data so far we recommend the use of the standard scales.

The trait-scale was constructed on the basis of appr. 1000 subjects who filled in the pilot version with 106 items. The data reduction was based on factor and item analysis. We did preserve the facet structure but gave less emphasis to the facets that represent conceptual blends (SE6 is a blend of cheerfulness and seriousness; likewise BM3 and BM5 are less well represented). The sample was composed of subsamples (appendix) and included four geographic regions; however, older subjects were less well represented. The factor structure of the facet model was confirmed using the long or component form, which, however, was reduced to 94 items (from 106 items) to ensure reliability.

Similarly, the state-scale was constructed on the basis of appr. 1350 subjects who filled in the pilot version with 45 items. The data reduction was based on factor and item analysis. We did investigate whether the same facet structure emerges than with German data (so far only across subjects) and this was the case; so the scales were kept balanced with respect to the facets.

We have computed some test statistics and norms for both versions and put them together in tables (see Appendix). We also have very preliminary information on validity. We do NOT have reliability (retest or internal consistency) data on the final scales (i.e., with 60 and 30 items).

Literature on Construction and Validation of the STCI


STCI: Publications from around the world

a) Essays in journals

Ayan, S. (2009). Laughing matters. Seeing the bright side of life may strengthen the psyche, ease pain, and tighten social bonds. Scientific American Mind, April/May, 32-39.

Bayer, U., & Hausmann, M. (2009). Estrogen therapy affects right hemisphere functioning in postmenopausal women. Hormones and Behavior, 55, 228-234. Abstract

Bayer, U., & Hausmann, M. (2009). Effects of sex hormone therapy on interhemispheric crosstalk in postmenopausal women. Neuropsychology, 23(4), 509-518. doi:10.1037/a0015436 Abstract

Bayer, U., Kessler, N., Güntürkün O., Hausmann, M. (2008). Interhemispheric interaction during the menstrual cycle. Neuropsychologia, 46, 2415-2422. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.02.028 Abstract

Boazman, A., & Sayler, M. (2011). Personal well-being of gifted students following participation in an early college-entrance program. Roeper Review, 33, 76-85. doi:10.1080/02783193.2011.554153 Abstract

Delgado-Domínguez, C.J., Escudera-Contrras,  A., Font-Ugalde, P., Ruiz-Vilchez, D., Collantes-Estévez, E., & Carretero-Dios, H. (2016). Upswings in cheerful mood and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 606-10. doi: 10.1007/s12529-016-9550-2 Abstract

Domínguez, C., Ugalde, P., Vilchez, D., Carretero-Dios, H., & Estévez, E. (2015). Positive and negative affective states and disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatology International, 35, 519-524. doi:10.1007/s00296-014-3107-y Abstract

Edwards, K. R., Martin, R. A. (2012). Do Humorous People Take Poorer Care of Their Health? Associations Between Humor Styles and Substance Use. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 8(4), 523-534. doi:10.5964/ejop.v8i4.461 Abstract

Fabian, E. (2002). On the differentiated use of humor and joke in psychotherapy. The Psychoanalytic Review, 89(3), 399-412. Abstract

Falkenberg, I. (2010). Entwicklung von Lachen und Humor in den verschiedenen Lebensphasen. Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie, 43 (1), 25-30 doi: 10.1007/s00391-009-0085-x. Abstract

Falkenberg, I., Buchkremer, G., Bartels, M., & Wild, B. (2011). Implementation of a manual-based training of humor abilities in patients with depression: A pilot study. Psychiatry research, 186(2), 454-457. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2010.10.009 Abstract

Falkenberg, I., Jarmuzek J., Bartels, M., & Wild, B. (2011) Do depressed patients lose their sense of humor? Psychopathology, 44, 98-105. doi:10.1159/000317778 Abstract

Falkenberg, I., Klügel, K., Bartels, M., & Wild, B. (2007). Sense of humor in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 95, 259-261. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2007.06.006 Abstract

Forstmeier, S., Uhlendorff, H., & Maercker, A. (2005). Diagnostik von Ressourcen im Alter. Zeitschrift für Gerontopsychologie &-psychiatrie, 18(4), 227-257. doi:10.1024/1011-6877.18.4.227 Abstract

Frank, B., Andrzejewski, K., Göricke, S., Wondzinski, E., Siebler, M., Wild, B., & Timmann, D. (2013). Humor, laughter, and the cerebellum: Insights from patients with acute cerebellar stroke. The Cerebellum, 12, 802-811. doi:10.1007/s12311-013-0488-5 Abstract

Frank, B., Propson, B., Göricke, S., Jacobi, H., Wild, B., & Timmann, D. (2012). Humor and laughter in patients with cerebellar degeneration. The Cerebellum, 11, 564-573. doi:10.1007/s12311-011-0320-z Abstract

Hausmann, M. (2005). Hemispheric asymmetry in spatial attention across the menstrual cycle. Neuropsychologia, 43, 1559-1567. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.01.017 Abstract

Hausmann, M., Hamm, J.P., Waldie, K.E., & Kirk, I.J. (2013). Sex hormonal modulation of interhemispheric transfer time. Neuropsychologia, 51, 1734-1741. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.05.017 Abstract

Hausmann, M., Hodgetts, S., & Tuomas, E. (2016). Music-induced changes in functional cerebral asymmetries. Brain and Cognition, 104, 58-71. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2016.03.001 Abstract

Hjelmervik, H., Westerhausen, R., Osnes, B., Endresen, C. B., Hugdahl, K., Hausmann, M., & Specht, K. (2012). Language lateralization and cognitive control across the menstrual cycle assessed with a dichotic-listening paradigm. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(11), 1866-75. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.03.021. Abstract

Hirsch, R. D., Junglas, K., Konradt, B., & Jonitz, M. F. (2010). Humortherapie bei alten Menschen mit einer Depression: Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung [Humor therapy in the depressed elderly: Results of an empirical study[. Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie, 43, 42-52. doi:10.1007/s00391-009-0086-9 Abstract

Hirsch, R.D., & Kranzhoff, E. U. (2004). Humorgruppe mit alten Menschen: Ergebnisse einer therapiebegleitenden Untersuchung. Gruppenpsychotherapie und Gruppendynamik, 40, 106-129. doi:10.1007/s00391-009-0086-9

Hodson, G., MacInnis, C. C., & Rush, J. (2010). Prejudice-relevant correlates of humor temperaments and humor styles. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 546-549. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.05.016 Abstract

Holländer, A., Hausmann, M., Hamm, J. P., & Corballis, M. C. (2005). Sex hormonal modulation of hemispheric asymmetries in the attentional blink. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 263-272. doi:10.1017/S1355617705050319 Abstract

Konradt, B., Hirsch, R. D., Jonitz, M. F., & Junglas, K. (2013). Evaluation of a standardized humor group in a clinical setting: a feasibility study for older patients with depression. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28, 850-857. doi:10.1002/gps.3893 Abstract

Martin, R. A., Puhlik-Doris, P., Larsen, G., Gray, J., & Weir, K. (2003). Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the Humor Styles Questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 48-75. (Abstract)

Mitsutake, G., Otsuka, K., Oinuma, S., Ferguson, I., Cornelissen, G., Wanliss, J., & Halberg, F. (2004). Does exposure to an artificial ULF magnetic field affect blood pressure, heart rate variability and mood? Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 58 (Suppl. 1), 20-27. (Abstract)

Papousek, I., Reiser, E. M., Weiss, E. M., Fink, A., Samson, A. C., Lackner, H. K., & Schulter, G. (2012). State-dependent changes of prefrontal–posterior coupling in the context of affective processing: Susceptibility to humor. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 13, 252-261.. doi: 10.3758/s13415-012-0135-5. Abstract

Papousek, I., & Schulter, G. (2008). Effects of a mood-enhancing intervention on subjective well-being and cardiovascular parameters. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15, 293-302. Abstract

Papousek, I., Reiser, E.M., Weiss, E.M., Fink, A., Samson, A.C., Lackner, H.K., & Schulter, G. (2013). State-dependent changes of prefrontal-posterior coupling in the context of affective processing: susceptibility to humor. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 13, 252-261. doi:10.3758/s13415-012-0135-5. Abstract

Proyer, R. T. (2012). Development and initial assessment of a short measure for adult playfulness: The SMAP. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(8), 989-994. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.07.018. Abstract

Proyer, R., & Rodden, F.A. (2013). Is the Homo Ludens cheerful and serious at the same time? An empirical study of Hugo Rahner's notion of Emstheiterkeit. Archive for the Psychology of Religions, 35, 213-231. doi:10.1163/15736121-12341262

Sarris, J., Scholey, A., Schweitzer, I., Bousman, C., LaPorte, E., Ng, C., ... & Stough, C. (2012). The acute effects of kava and oxazepam on anxiety, mood, neurocognition; and genetic correlates: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 27(3), 262-269. doi: 10.1002/hup.2216. Abstract

Singh, S.C., Sheth, R.D., Burrows, J.F., & Rosen, P. (2016). Factors influencing patient experience in pediatric neurology. Pediatric Neurology, 60, 37-41. doi:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2016.04.002 Abstract

Tapia- Villanueva, L., Armijo, I., Pereira, X., & Molina, M.E. (2014). Chilean spanish version of the State Trait Cheerfulness Inventory (STCI-T-60, trait form): Individual and couple forms. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 27, 481-498. doi:10.1515/humor-2014-0074 Abstract

Wrench, J. S., & McCroskey, J. C. (2001). A temperamental understandig of humor communication and exhilaratability. Communication Quarterly, 49, 142-159. doi:10.1080/01463370109385622 (pdf)

Yip, J. A., & Martin, R. A. (2006). Sense of humor, emotional intelligence, and social competence. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 1202-1208. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2005.08.005 (Abstract)

b) Essays in books

Baños, R., García-Soriano, G., Botella, C., Oliver, E., Etchemendy, E., Bretón, J., & Alcañiz, M. (2009). Positive mood induction and well being. In Proceedings of the 2nd conference on Human System Interactions (HSI'09; pp. 517-519). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press. (Abstract)

Casu, G., & Gremigni, P. (2012). Humor measurement. In Gremigni, P. (Ed.), Humor and health promotion (pp. 253-273). Hauppauge, NY, US: Nova Biomedical Books.

Krantzhoff, E. U., & Hirsch, R. D. (2001). Humor in der Gerontopsychiatrischen Klink: Ergebnisse einer therapiebegleitenden Studie [Humor in geriatric psychiatric hospitals: Results of a therapy evaluation study]. In R. D. Hirsch, J. Bruder & H. Radebold (Hrsg.), Heiterkeit und Humor im Alter (S.139-162). Kassel: Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Gerontopsychiatrie und -psychotherapie, Band 2. Chudeck-Druck, Bornheim-Sechtem.

c) Books

Bönsch-Kauke, M. (2003). Psychologie des Kinderhumors: Schulkinder unter sich. Opladen: Leske und Budrich.

Hirsch, R.D., Bruder, J., & Radebold, H. (Eds.) (2001). Heiterkeit und Humor im Alter. Bornheim-Sechtem, Germany: Chudeck-Druck.

Rissland, B. (2002). Humor und seine Bedeutung für den Lehrerberuf. Heilbronn, Germany: Julius Klinkhandt.

Williams, A. N. (2004). The truth about you: Discover hidden truths about yourself - and enhance your life (Chapter 5: pp. 185-190, 190-202). London: Vermilion.


STCI: Publications by the Zurich team

a) Essays in journals

Auerbach, S., Hofmann, J., Platt, T., & Ruch, W. (2013). An investigation of the emotions elicited by hospital clowns in comparison to circus clowns and nursing staff. The European Journal of Humour Research, 1(3), 26-54. Abstract

Auerbach, S., Ruch, W., & Fehling, A. (2016). Positive emotions elicited by clowns and nurses: An experimental study in a hospital setting. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 2, 14–24. doi:10.1037/tps0000055.

Beermann, U., & Ruch, W. (2009). How virtuous is humor? What we can learn from current instruments. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 528-539.

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Beermann, U., & Ruch, W. (2011). Can people really laugh at themselves? Experimental and correlational evidence. Emotion, 11, 492-501.

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Brutsche, M. H., Grossman, P., Müller, R. E., Wiegand, J., Pello, Bathy, F., & Ruch, W. (2008). Impact of laughter on air trapping in severe chronic obstructive lung disease. International Journal of COPD, 3, 1-8.

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Carretero-Dios, H., Benítez, I., Delgado-Rico, E., Ruch, W., & López-Benítez, R. (2014). Temperamental basis of sense of humor: The Spanish long form of the trait version of the State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 68, 77-82. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.03.045.

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Carretero-Dios, H., Eid, M., & Ruch, W. (2011). Analyzing multitrait-mulitmethod data with multilevel confirmatory factor analysis: An application to the validation of the State-Trait Cheerfulness Inventory. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 153-164. Abstract

Chen, G.-H., Ruch, W., & Li, Y.-N. (2016). Temperamental basis of sense of humor: Validating the state-trait-cheerfulness-inventory in Mainland China. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 29, 77–97. doi:10.1515/humor-2015-0129.

Delgado-Rico, E., Carretero-Dios, H., & Ruch, W. (2012). Content validity evidences in test development: an applied perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 12, 449-460. Abstract

Hofmann, J., Platt, T., Ruch, W., Niewiadomski, R., & Urbain, J. (2015). The influence of a virtual companion on amusement when watching funny films. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 434-447.

Köhler, G., & Ruch, W. (1996). Sources of variance in current sense of humor inventories: How much substance, how much method variance? In W. Ruch (Ed.), Measurement of the sense of humor [special issue]. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 9, 363-397.

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Platt, T., Hofmann, J., Ruch, W., & Proyer, R. T. (2013). Duchenne display responses towards sixteen enjoyable emotions: Individual differences between no and fear of being laughed at. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 776-786. doi: 10.1007/s11031-013-9342-9. Abstract

Platt, T., Hofmann, J., Ruch, W., Niewiadomski, R., & Urbain, J. (2012). Experimental standards in research on AI and humor when considering psychology. Fall Symposium on Artificial Intelligence of Humor Proceedings, Washington, USA, 2-4 of November, 54-61.

Platt, T., Proyer, R. T., & Ruch, W. (2009). Gelotophobia and bullying: The assessment of the fear of being laughed at and its application among bullying victims. Psychology Science Quarterly, 51 (2), 135-147.

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Proyer, R. T., Ruch, W., & Müller, L. (2010). Sense of humor among the elderly. Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie, 43(1), 19-24. doi:10.1007/s00391-009-0082-0. Abstract

Rapp, A.M., Wild, B., Erb, M., Rodden, F.A., Ruch, W., & Grodd, W. (2008). Trait cheerfulness modulates BOLD-response in lateral cortical but not limbic brain areas - a pilot fMRI study. Neuroscience Letters, 445, 242–245.

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Ruch, W. (1994). Extraversion, alcohol, and enjoyment. Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 89-102.

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Ruch, W. (1994). Temperament, Eysenck's PEN system, and humor-related traits. Humor. International Journal of Humor Research, 7, 209-244.

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Ruch, W. (1995). Will the real relationship between facial expression and affective experience please stand up: The case of exhilaration. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 33-58.

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Ruch, W. (1997). State and trait cheerfulness and the induction of exhilaration: A FACS study. European Psychologist, 2, 328-341.

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Ruch, W., & Carrell, A. (1998). Trait cheerfulness and the sense of humor. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 551-558.

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Ruch, W., & Köhler, G. (1999). The measurement of state and trait cheerfulness. In I. Mervielde, I. Deary, F. De Fruyt & F. Ostendorf (Eds.), Personality Psychology in Europe (Vol. 7, pp. 67-83). Tilburg: Tilburg University Press.

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Ruch, W., & Müller, L. (2009). Wenn Heiterkeit Therapie wird. Geriatrie, 3, 22-24.

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Ruch, W., & Rath, S. (1993). The nature of humor appreciation: Toward an integration of perception of stimulus properties and affective experience. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 6, 363-384.

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Ruch, W., Beermann, U., & Proyer, R. T. (2009). Investigating the humor of gelotophobes: Does feeling ridiculous equal being humorless? Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 22, 111-143.

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Ruch, W., Köhler, G., & van Thriel, C. (1996). Assessing the "humorous temperament": Construction of the facet and standard trait forms of the State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory — STCI. In W. Ruch (Ed.), Measurement of the sense of humor [special issue]. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 9, 303-339.

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Ruch, W., Köhler, G., & van Thriel, C. (1997). To be in good or bad humor: Construction of the state form of the State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory — STCI. Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 477-491.

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Samson, A., Huber, O., & Ruch, W. (2013). Seven decades after Hans Asperger’s observations: A comprehensive study of humor in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 26, 441-460.

Sarid, O., Melzer, I., Kurz, I., Shahar, D. R., & Ruch, W. (2010). The effect of helping behaviour and physical activity on mood states and depressive symptoms of elderly people. Clinical Gerontologist, 33, 270-282.

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Stevens, M. F., & Ruch, W. (2000). Nitrous oxide seems to be mood enhancing only in cheerful people. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 17(19), 83. doi:10.1097/00003643-200000002-00267. Abstract

Thompson, R., Ruch, W., & Hasenöhrl, R. U. (2004). Enhanced cognitive performance and cheerful mood by standardized extracts of Piper methysticum (Kava-kava). Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 19, 243-250.

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Zweyer, K., Velker, B., & Ruch, W. (2004). Do cheerfulness, exhilaration, and humor production moderate pain tolerance? A FACS study. In R. A. Martin (Ed.), Sense of Humor and Health [special issue]. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research 17(1/2), 85–119.

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b) Chapters and essays in books

Beermann, U., Gander, F., Hiltebrand, D., Wyss, T. & Ruch, W. (2009). Laughing at oneself: Trait or state? In D. Peham & E. Bänninger-Huber (Eds.), Proceedings of the FACS-Workshop 2007 (pp. 27-31). Innsbruck, Austria: Innsbruck University Press.

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Hofmann, J., & Ruch, W. (2013). Humor. In D. S. Dunn (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies Online. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199828340/obo-9780199828340-0127.xml. doi: 10.1093/obo/9780199828340-0127

Hofmann, J., & Ruch, W. (2014). Cheerfulness, seriousness, and humor. In S. Attardo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of humor studies (pp. 118-120). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ruch, W. (1993). Die Emotion Erheiterung: Eine Übersicht über den Forschungsbereich. In Montada, L. (Hrsg.), Bericht über den 38. Kongreß der DGfPs in Trier 1992 (pp. 277-285). Göttingen: Hogrefe.

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Ruch, W. (1993). Exhilaration and humor (Chapter 42). In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), The Handbook of Emotions (pp. 605-616). New York, NY: Guilford Publications.

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Ruch, W. (1997). Extraversion, alcohol, and enjoyment. In P. Ekman & E. L. Rosenberg (Eds.), What the face reveals: Basic and applied studies of spontaneous expression using the Facial Action Coding System (pp. 112-130). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Ruch, W. (1997). Laughter and temperament. In P. Ekman & E. L. Rosenberg (Eds.), What the face reveals: Basic and applied studies of spontaneous expression using the Facial Action Coding System (pp. 131-132). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Ruch, W. (1997). Will the real relationship between facial expression and affective experience please stand up: The case of exhilaration. In P. Ekman & E. L. Rosenberg (Eds.), What the face reveals: Basic and applied studies of spontaneous expression using the Facial Action Coding System (pp. 89-108). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Ruch, W. (1998). Exhilaration, exhilaratability and the exhilarants. In A. Fischer (Ed.), Proceedings of the 10th conference of the International Society for Research on Emotions (pp. 122-126). Würzburg: ISRE.

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Ruch, W. (1998/2007). Tools used for diagnosing humor states and traits. In W. Ruch (Ed.), The sense of humor: Explorations of a personality characteristic (405-412). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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Ruch, W. (2000). Erheiterung und Heiterkeit. In J. Otto, H. A. Euler & H. Mandl (Hrsg.), Emotionspsychologie. Ein Handbuch in Schlüsselbegriffen (pp. 231-238). Stuttgart: Psychologische Verlags Union.

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Ruch, W. (2001). The perception of humor. In A. Kaszniak (Ed.), Emotion, qualia, and consciousness (pp. 410-425). Tokyo: Word Scientific Publisher.

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Ruch, W. (2004). Humor. In C. P. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Character strengths and virtues: A handbook of classification (pp. 583-598). American Psychological Association, Washington DC, USA (& Oxford University Press).

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Ruch, W. (2005). Will the real relationship between facial expression and affective experience please stand up: The case of exhilaration. In: P. Ekman & E.L. Rosenberg (Ed.), What the face reveals: Basic and applied studies of spontaneous expression using the Facial Action Coding System (pp. 89-108). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

Ruch, W. (2008). The psychology of humor. In: V. Raskin (Ed.), A primer of humor (pp. 17-100). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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Ruch, W. (2014). Cheerfulness. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life Research (pp. 658-662). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

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Ruch, W., & Ekman, P. (2001). The expressive pattern of laughter. In A. Kaszniak (Ed.), Emotion, qualia and consciousness (pp. 426-443). Word Scientific Publisher. Tokyo.

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Ruch, W., & Hehl, F. -J. (1998/2007). A two-mode model of humor appreciation: Its relation to aesthetic appreciation and simplicity-complexity of personality. In W. Ruch (Ed.), The sense of humor: Explorations of a personality characteristic (pp. 109-142). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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Ruch, W., & Hofmann, J. (2012). A temperament approach to humor. In P. Gremigni (Ed.), Humor and health promotion (Chap. 5; pp. 79-112). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Sciece Publishers.

Ruch, W., & Hofmann, J. (2014). Factor analysis of humor items. In S. Attardo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of humor studies (pp. 226-228). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ruch, W., & Hofmann, J. (2017). Fostering humour. In C. Proctor (Ed.), Positive psychology interventions in practice (pp. 65–80). New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-51787-2_5.

Ruch, W., & Köhler, G. (1998/2007). A temperament approach to humor. In W. Ruch (Ed.), The sense of humor: Explorations of a personality characteristic (pp. 203-230). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

pdf (PDF, 116 KB)

Ruch, W., & McGhee, P.E. (2014). Humor Intervention Programs. In Parks, A.C. & Schueller (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychological Interventions (pp. 179-193). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Ruch, W., & Zweyer, K. (2001). Ergebnisse der Forschung zu Humor und Heiterkeit. In R. D. Hirsch, J. Bruder & H. Radebold (Hrsg.), Heiterkeit und Humor im Alter (S. 9-43). Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Gerontopsychiatrie und -psychotherapie, Band 2. Chudeck-Druck, Bornheim-Sechtem.

pdf (PDF, 1259 KB)

Ruch, W., Proyer, R. T., Esser, C., & Mitrache, O. (2011). Cheerfulness and everyday humorous conduct. In Anuarul Institutului de Istorie «George Baritiu» din Cluj-Napoca [Yearbook of "G. Baritiu" History Institute from Cluj-Napoca], Series Humanistica (Vol. 9; pp. 67-87). Bucharest, Romania: Academy Publishing House.

pdf (PDF, 378 KB)

Sommer, K., & Ruch, W. (2009). Cheerfulness. In: S. J. Lopez (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Positive Psychology. Massachusetts, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

pdf (PDF, 123 KB)

c) Books

Ruch, W. (Ed.) (1998, 2007). The sense of humor: Explorations of a personality characteristic. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Suru, A., Vlăduţescu, G., Dima, T., Friedmann, J. R., Henschke, J. A., Ruch, W., Sandu, D., Siekmann, R. C. R., Swann, J., Botez, A., Jurcău, N., & Dorbresc, E. M. (Eds.). (2010). Anuarul Institutului de Istorie "George Barit¸iu" din Cluj-Napoca" [Yearbook of "G. Baritiu" History Institute from Cluj-Napoca], Series Humanistica (Vol. VIII). Bucharest, RO: Academy Publishing House.


STCI: students research

d) Bachelor, Master and Doctoral Theses (unpublished)

Barzilay, O. A. (2010). Anschluss- und Intimitätsmotiv(in)kongruenz und ihre Korrelate. Unveröffentl. Lizentiatsarbeit, Universität Zürich, Abteilung Allgemeine Psychologie (Motivation), Zürich.

Baumann, S., & Städeli, I. (2005). Lachen und experimentell induzierter Schmerz: Eine FACS Studie. Unveröffentl. Lizentiatsarbeit, Universität Zürich, Abteilung Persönlichkeitspsychologie und Diagnostik, Zürich.

Beyler, M. (1999). Ist Erheiterung entspannend? Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Institut für Physiologische Psychologie, Düsseldorf.

Drews, J. (2010). Kategorien und Funktionen des frühkindlichen Humors, seine Wirkungen und die Möglichkeiten einer bewussten Induzierung in Bildungs- und Erziehungsprozessen von Kindern. Unveröffentlichte Doktorarbeit Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Fakultät für Sozial- und Verhaltenswissenschaften, Tübingen.

Esser, C. (2001). Der "Humorous Behavior Q-sort Deck" nach Craik, Lampert und Nelson: ein erschöpfendes Modell für Humor? Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Institut für Physiologische Psychologie, Düsseldorf.

Erne, B. (2008). Vorhersage depressiver Symptome durch unterschiedliche Facetten ruminativer Gedanken, Lageorientierung und schlechte Laune. Unveröffentl. Lizentiatsarbeit, Universität Zürich, Abteilung Persönlichkeitspsychologie und Diagnostik, Zürich.

Golla, M. (2001). Ist Lachen entspannend? Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Institut für Physiologische Psychologie, Düsseldorf.

Gorovoy, I. (2009). Best predictors of quality of life (QOL) based on character Strengths of gratitude, curiosity and cheerfulness. Unpubl. Master Thesis. Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.

Günzler, C. , Deuser, V., & Zimmermann, S. (2001). Der Einfluss der sozialen Umwelt auf die Humorbewertung: Untersuchungsbericht. Unveröffentl. Praktikumsbericht.

Hartig, J. (1996). Heiteres Temperament als Moderator der stimmungsverändernden Wirkung der Rückmeldung des eigenen willkürlich gestellten Gesichtsausdrucks emotional negativer Qualität: Eine FACS-Studie.Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Institut für Psychologie, Frankfurt am Main.

Haußer, S. (1999). Heiterkeit, kritische Lebensereignisse und Wohlbefinden. Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Institut für Physiologische Psychologie, Düsseldorf.

Heger, M. (2012). Die Auswirkungen schwarzen Humors auf mentale Fähigkeiten unter der Berücksichtigung der Theory of Mind und Empathie. Unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit Universität Wien.

Hensler, M. M. (2009). Sind konkretistische Denkstörungen eine homogene Entität? Untersuchungen zum Verständnis nicht-wörtlicher Sprache bei schizophrenen Patienten. Unveröffentlichte Doktorarbeit Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Medizinische Fakultät, Tübingen.

Hilscher, M. B. (2005). Performance implications of alternative color codes in airport x-ray baggage screening. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis. University of Central Florida, Dept. of Psychology, Orlando.

Hilse, J., Jebram, A., & Struckmeier, I. (2006). Einfluss von Trait-Cheerfulness auf Frustrationstoleranz. Unveröffentl. Bericht zum experimentellen Praktikum WS 05/06, Universität Heidelberg.

Hösli, K., & Sommer, K. (2007). Entwicklung einer Kinder- und Jugendlichenversion des State-Trait-Heiterkeits-Inventars (STHI). Konstruktpräzisierung, Testkonstruktion und erste Validierung. Unveröffentl. Dissertation Universität Zürich, Abteilung Persönlichkeitspsychologie und Diagnostik, Zürich.

Jackson, P. E. (2007). Stress, Cheerfulness and Humor: The Relationships among Stress, Humor, and Traits Cheerfulness, Seriousness and Bad Mood. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis. Metropolitan State College of Denver.

Keller, D., & von Sauberzweig, T. (2006). Heiterkeit oder schlechte Laune - Eine Frage der Erziehung. Eine Korrelationsstudie. Unveröffentl. Studienarbeit, Hochschule für Angewandte Psychologie HAP, Zürich.

Kirchhoff, C. (2001). Humor, belastende Ereignisse und Befindlichkeit. Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Institut für Physiologische Psychologie, Düsseldorf.

Klügel, K. (2008). Humorwahrnehmung und Veränderung des Humors bei psychischen Erkrankungen am Beispiel der Schizophrenie. Unveröffentl. Doktorarbeit Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Medizinische Fakultät, Tübingen.

Konrad (geb. Jarmuzek), J. (2010). Wahrnehmung von witzigen Stimuli und Veränderung des Humors bei psychischen Erkrankungen am Beispiel der Depression. Unveröffentlichte Dissertation, Eberhard-Karls-Universität, Abteilung Allgemeine Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie mit Poliklinik, Tübingen.

Linnenbrink, G. (2002). Die moderierende Wirkung verschiedener Humorstile auf die Beziehung zwischen Stress(erleben) und Befindlichkeit. Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Institut für Physiologische Psychologie, Düsseldorf.

Maas, C. (2003). Sense of humor and spirituality as correlates of psychological well-being in men with and without Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis. Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, Palo Alto CA.

Maier, M. (2010). Wirksamkeit von computerunterstützter Exposition zur Therapie von Spinnenangst. Masterarbeit, GRIN Verlag.

Maiwald, J. (2012). “Humor ist, wenn man trotzdem lacht.” – Zur Bedeutung des Humors in der Sozialen Arbeit. Bachelorarbeit, GRIN Verlag.

Meyer, R. (1995). Der Einfluss von Raumatmosphäre und gelenkter Aufmerksamkeit auf die aktuelle Stimmung. Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Institut für Psychologie, Düsseldorf.

Mutschler, D. E. (2010). Funktionelle Neuroanatomie ironischer Sprache: Zum Einfluss des Persönlichkeitsmerkmals Schizotypie auf die Sprachperzeption. Unveröffentl. Doktorarbeit Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Medizinische Fakultät, Tübingen.

Rambech, N. (2001). Personality and daily addictions: Is the “addiction profile” valid for everyday excessive behavior independent from the perspective of assessment? Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Institut für Physiologische Psychologie, Düsseldorf.

Rupp, G. P. (2012). Der affective Aspekt der Humorwertschätzung schwarzen Humors unter Berücksichtigung der Theory of Mind. Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Universität Wien, Fakultät für Psychologie, Wien. Retrieved from http://othes.univie.ac.at/23468/

Sassenrath, S. (2001). Humor und Lachen als Stressbewältigung: Evaluation des 8 Stufen Humor-Trainingprogramms zur Wiederentdeckung und Stärkung des Sinnes für Humor von Dr. Paul E. McGhee. Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit, Universität Wien, Fakultät für Humanwissenschaften, Wien.

Schmiderer, K. (2009). Humor und seine Bedeutung für arbeitsbezogenes Erleben, Verhalten und Burnout im Lehrerberuf. Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit, Universität Wien.

Stoffel, F., & Weber, A, (2009). Humor und Lachen – Peinliche Erlebnisse: Wer kann über sich selbst lachen. Unveröffentl. Forschungsseminararbeit, Universität Zürich, Persönlichkeitspsychologie und Diagnostik, Zürich, Schweiz.

Van Lierde, B. (1995). Der Einfluss experimentell variierter heiterer Stimmung und experimentell variierter sozialer Situation auf die Auslösung von Erheiterung, ermittelt anhand FACS-kodierter mimischer und verbaler Indikatoren. Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Institut für Psychologie, Düsseldorf.

Velker, B. (2001). Moderiert Extraversion den Einfluss positiver Emotionen auf Schmerz? Eine FACS-Studie.Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Institut für Physiologische Psychologie, Düsseldorf.

Waidhofer, B. (2006). Humor und seine Beziehung zur Positiven Psychologie im Alter.Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit. Universität Wien, Fakultät für Psychologie, Wien.

Wancke, C.-U. (1996). Der Einfluss unterschiedlicher emotionaler Qualitäten von Sinnsprüchen und des Umgangs mit Material auf die aktuelle Befindlichkeit der Probanden. Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Institut für Psychologie, Düsseldorf.

Wong Sin On, P. (2003). The use of humour in counselling among counsellors in Malaysia. Unpubl. Dissertation University of Malaysia, Faculty of Education, Kuala Lumpur.

Zweyer, K. (2000). Die Auswirkung von Heiterkeit, Erheiterung und Humorproduktion auf experimentell induzierte Schmerzen. Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Institut für Physiologische Psychologie, Düsseldorf.

e) Poster

Gessner, S. N., & Filion, D. (2010). Investigating emotional responsivity in people high and low in trait happiness. Twenty Fourth Annual Meeting of the Society for Research in Psychopathology, Seattle, WA, October 7-11 (Poster).

Gessner, S. N., & Filion, D. (2011). Emotional responsivity in people high and low in trait happiness [Abstract]. Psychophysiology, 48, S23.

Ruch, W., Auerbach, S., Sommer, K. & Hösli, K. (2011). The humorous temperament of children and youth: Development of children’s version of the State-Trait-Cheerfulness Inventory (STCI-C). 11th European Conference on Psychological Assessment, 31 August – 3 September 2011, Riga, Latvia (Poster).

Ruch, W., & Stevens, M. (1995). The differential effects of nitrous oxide on mood level: The role of trait-cheerfulness. 7th Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences – ISSID, Warsaw, July 15-19 (Poster).

f) Talks

Korb, S. (2009). Humor processing, emotion regulation, and EEG. 11th Congress of the Swiss Society of Psychology, University of Neuchatel, Switzerland, August 19-20 (Talk).

Available versions, scoring keys, and tables


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A). English version

B). German version: State-Trait-Heiterkeits-Inventar (STHI) (DOC, 100 KB)

C). International version (PDF, 64 KB)

This are the versions to start from with the translation. They are equivalent to the German long forms. (PDF, 64 KB)

D). NEW: version for children and youth (German language, pdf-files) (DOC, 23 KB)

E). NEW: version for children and youth (English language, pdf-files) (PDF, 45 KB)